Community Archives - LDOT - O.T.SERVICES INC.

SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT – Merger with Geronimo OT as of May 1, 2023

LDOT and GOT – The Baton Has Been Passed…

Merger unites experienced professional Occupational Therapy team

“In business as in life, it is not what we leave behind that matters, it is what we pass on and
launch forward ….”

Lesya Dyk OT, Reg. ON and Julie Geronimo OT, Reg. ON, announce the merging of the clinical operations of Lesya Dyk OT Services with Geronimo OT effective May 1, 2023. This merger is the culmination of Lesya’s 25 years in her clinical practice Lesya Dyk OT Services Inc., and allows Lesya to concentrate on supporting Geronimo OT, as Julie expands her staff and her services.

Lesya and Julie have known each other for over 15 years, Lesya having hired Julie as she graduated from OT school in 2007. Julie’s skill and ambition could not be denied, and she started out on her own with Geronimo OT in 2015. During this time, Lesya and Julie kept in close contact, and supported each other’s Occupational Therapy practices

“This move was always a part of my succession plan – I had wanted to pass the baton to someone like Julie Geronimo”, stated Lesya Dyk. “Leaving the practice in the hands of a like-minded Occupational Therapist who would take on not only the files, but maintain the existing staff and contract therapists. And most of all, it was important that the same values I have as a practitioner are maintained”.

“I have worked with all the LDOT staff – so merging the clinical operations and taking on the staff allows me to expand the offerings of my practice without a significant period of transitioning” explained Julie Geronimo. “Lesya has developed a robust Functional Capacity and Vocational Assessment offering. Having Lesya’ s ongoing commitment to support this transition and have a role in the clinical part of the practice has made this decision easier to consider”.

All of LDOT clinical files will be assumed by Geronimo OT (Julie Geronimo) on May 1, 2023. There should be no change in clinical staff assigned. Julie will continue her work in providing leadership as she expands her practice. Lesya will continue to work with referral sources and provide support to transition the work done in the Auto Sector, Vocational and Medical Legal Assessments. Lesya will also support Geronimo OT at conferences and in new business development initiatives.

For further information, please contact:

Lesya Dyk
Phone: 905-481-1122 x211

Julie Geronimo
Phone: 289-759-1091

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7 Important Back Pack Facts for a Healthy, Happy Return to School…

7 Important Back Pack Facts for a Healthy, Happy Return to School…

At this time of year, the market is flooded with apparel and school supplies featuring a child’s favourite TV character and is often splashed with attractive colours and designs. But parents need to look beyond the flashy-ness when it comes to backpack shopping and ensure that the bag their child will be using promotes health and minimizes risk of injury. After all, they will be using it for almost 200 days of the year!

Check out the hot backpack tips below before hitting the mall for back-to-school shopping:

  1. Straps should be padded, wide and adjustable. Two straps are recommended rather than wearing a cross-body sling pack, which wouldn’t distribute weight evenly. Researchers say wearing a backpack slung over one shoulder can lead to poor posture and pain in the neck, shoulders, and back. Even if you switch it back and forth between shoulders, you are walking off-balance. This puts a strain on all of the bones and muscles of your upper body, not to mention your hips and core.
  2. The portion of the pack that rests against your child’s back should also be padded so sharp objects, such as the edges of books, don’t poke into the back.
  3. Get a pack that has a waist strap, especially if the load is typically more than 10 percent of your child’s weight. This will help distribute the load and take the weight off of the shoulders.
  4. Did you know that one size does not “fit all” when it comes to backpacks?  Adjust the straps so the pack sits 2” above the waist and the pack is held close to your child’s body. If you can’t adjust the straps to achieve this, the pack is too long and you need to look for a pack made for a shorter torso.  
  5. The weight of a backpack should not exceed 10-15% of the student’s body weight. That means that it should probably weigh 4 to 15 pounds at most.
  6. Make sure to organize the items with the heaviest closest to the student’s back and lighter items towards the outside.  This will minimize shifting/sway and ensure the weight is distributed evenly.
  7. You may have to help lighten your child’s backpack. Only have your child carry what is necessary (this is another great reason you can use to convince junior that his electronics and toys need to stay home). If you can’t lighten the load enough, consider a rolling backpack for your child.
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LDOT is Hiring OTAs!

LDOT is Hiring OTAs!

Occupational Therapist Assistant (OTA) – (Part-time)

Hamilton, Toronto & Greater Horseshoe


We are currently seeking an Occupational Therapy Assistant (OTA) to join our TEAM.  The OTA will practice under the guidance and direction of a Registered Occupational Therapist.

As the successful candidate, you are a graduate of a recognized OTA Certificate or Diploma program with a minimum of two years of work experience in a hospital, community or in-home setting. You demonstrate excellent interpersonal, organizational and communication skills, both written and verbal, along with a high level of initiative and adaptability.


  • Assist in implementation recommendations of the Occupational Therapist’s treatment plan
  • Work with a variety of clinical presentations with client centered treatment
  • Contribute to the clinic team through collaboration and demonstrating passion for the work you do
  • Create written reports and clinical notes in a timely manner.


  • Be passionate about your profession and dedicated to providing the highest quality of care
  • Possess a post-secondary diploma as an OT Assistant
  • Be dedicated to providing the highest quality of client care
  • Demonstrated experience in the private sector and community practice, particularly with auto sector legislation
  • Have excellent time management and organizational skills with an ability to work independently
  • Be comfortable working collaboratively within an interdisciplinary team
  • Seek guidance from supervised staff when appropriate
  • Excellent oral and written communication skills. Fluent in English
  • Be empathetic with an effective ability to build rapport with patients
  • Demonstrated proficiency in using Microsoft Word and Excel. Knowledge of Universal Scheduling an Asset
  • Possess a valid Ontario driver’s license and have access to a reliable vehicle


  • Competitive remuneration under contract for service agreement (Part-time)

To Apply:         Interested applicants should send their resume and cover letter to:

To learn more about Lesya Dyk O.T. Services, please visit:

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LDOT is Hiring OTs!

LDOT is Hiring OTs!

Lesya Dyk O.T. Services currently has an opening for an Occupational Therapist 

Occupational Therapist – Hamilton, Toronto & Greater Horseshoe

Lesya Dyk O.T. Services is an independent rehabilitation company that is dedicated to providing exceptional evidence-based and client centred treatment and assessments.

Key Responsibilities:

  • In-Home, Accessibility/ Home Safety and Attendant Care Needs Assessments
  • Hospital/Acute care discharge planning
  • Return to Work Programs – Contract or Sub-Contract basis
  • Progressive Goal Attainment Programs (PGAP)
  • Mobility assessments (ADP) an asset
  • Cognitive Rehabilitation Programs
  • Vocational Services – Brain Fx and Workwell an asset
  • Creation of treatment plans (OCF-18) using evidence based information, relevant best practice guidelines and clinical experience
  • Obtain client and third party consents
  • Complete clinical records according to company process and College standards
  • Attend occasional team and case conference meetings as required


  • Be dedicated to providing the highest quality of care
  • Be registered as a member in good standing with the College of Occupational Therapists of Ontario
  • Experience in the private sector and community practice; particularly with auto sector legislation
  • Background or experience in Mental Health an asset
  • Minimum 3+ years of clinical experience
  • Be comfortable working collaboratively within an interdisciplinary team
  • Have excellent oral and written skills
  • Possess strong skills in critical thinking, decision-making and analysis
  • Hold a valid Ontario driver’s license and have access to a reliable vehicle


  • Excellent remuneration under contract for service agreement.

 To Apply:   Interested applicants should send their resume and cover letter to:

To learn more about Lesya Dyk O.T. Services, please visit:

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Positioning Occupational Therapists as Leaders in Seniors Health & Well-being

Positioning Occupational Therapists as Leaders in Seniors Health & Well-being

As treasurer of OSOT, Lesya Dyk contributed the following article to OSOT members via “A Monthly Message from the OSOT Board of Directors” regarding seniors aging in palace which is a current focus of interest as June is National Seniors Month.

Occupational therapy has a significant role to play in helping seniors lead healthy and productive lives. OSOT is working hard to support our members with several initiatives to address the aging population in Canada.

Aging Population Chart

According to Statistics Canada – by 2038, a quarter of our population will be over the age of 65. This will mean that there will be 4.8 million more people over the age of 65 than there are now. The current resources available in health care will not be able to gear up to meet this need.

The reality is that the crisis of how to meet the health needs of the aging population is here. What is certain, there will be more of a role for Occupational Therapy – if we are careful and ready ourselves . This BoardTalk is dedicated to how OSOT is working toward this goal. Consider the following 5 examples of our commitment.

1. Home Modification Canada Steering Committee (HMC)

OSOT was a founding member of the Steering Committee of a consortium called Home Modification Canada (HMC) that was struck by Don Fenn of Caregiver Omnimedia in 2015 to address the “Ageing in Place” issue. While it is clear that a lack of long term care resources will necessitate seniors aging in place, that is, in fact, where research tells us they want to be. HMC was focused on promoting the need to better organize and integrate the home modification marketplace to best meet the needs of that growing aging population who wish to age in place.

In the spring of 2017 HMC made a presentation to the Canadian Home Builders Association (CHBA) with a proposal to develop a multi-faceted national partnership approach that would;

  • support builders/contractors, manufacturers, retailers and set standards, accredit and ensure the quality and value of home modifications

  • coordinate information about existing funding/financing mechanisms for home renovations/modifications

  • support the Canadian Licensing of the CAPS (Certified Ageing in Place Specialist) programme to include a re-written section on Occupational Therapy

  • foster more dynamic public conversations about aging in place and home modifications

  • encourage the application of research and innovation in the fields of smart home technologies, practical products and solutions for home modifications and accessibility

  • support national, provincial and local policy makers to remove barriers, facilitate and incent home modifications for seniors

HMC’s report and recommendations were well received by the CHBA which has moved forward to develop a national Home Modification Council. The best news? Our early work and representation and advocacy with HMC has resulted in occupational therapy being the only health profession represented at the Council table!

I have had the pleasure of representing OSOT at the HMC Steering Committee, experiencing the respect and support of our colleague stakeholders in the home modification marketplace, and am delighted to continue this representation at the CHMA Council Table as CAOT now takes on the professional representational role at a national level.

2. OSOT’s Seniors Advisory Council

Two years ago, the Board of Directors engaged a group of members to advise on how best the Society could advance the profession as leaders in seniors health and well-being. As a strategic priority, a focus on seniors has informed initiatives OSOT has undertaken in advocacy, promotion and professional development in virtually all sectors of OT practice, however, our ability to move the needle in terms of leadership and recognition in seniors health is something we wished to advance more fully. Under the chairmanship of Dr. Barry Trentham, our council includes Christie Brenchley, Barbara Cawley, Dr. Catherine Donnelly, Dr. Colleen McGrath, Aaron Yuen and Dr. Briana Zur.

3. A Vision for Enabling Healthy Aging in Ontario – a knowledge mobilization too initiative!

Approving a recommendation and proposal of the Seniors Advisory Council, OSOT is embarking on a new project initiative which aims to promote the evidence-based value of using an occupational lens to respond to the needs of a growing older adult population. Focused on the development of a dynamic website that features modules focused on key life course occupational transitions and profiles the work that occupational therapists are doing and/or could be doing to enable aging well, the project is focused on knowledge mobilization both within and external to the profession.

An enabler of this project has been the successful application of the Society to become a partner of AGE-WELL, Canada’s Aging and Technology Network.

AGE-WELL’s co-funding and resource support to the project both recognizes the value of promoting and enriching occupational therapy as a resource to aging well, but also provides access to knowledge translation resources to support OSOT members who share a practice interest in seniors health and well-being. Watch for our formal launch of this partnership later this month!

Meantime, see our posting for a Post-Doctoral Trainee for a position commencing September 2018 and running to August 2019. This full-time position will take a leadership role in the development, facilitation and evaluation of this knowledge mobilization project. There’s still time to apply! See call for applications.

4. Supporting members practice expertise & leadership relating to seniors health and well-being

Assuming leadership roles in seniors health and well-being requires a ready and informed membership. You have OSOT’s commitment to support your professional development to enable you to position your services to serve the needs of seniors and the health system that supports them.

OSOT’s Conference 2018, ADVANCE! Journey to Excellence,

provides but one opportunity to get involved, participate and learn. This year we will host a professional issues/leadership forum focused on advancing our profession’s roles in seniors health and well-being – plan to be a part! Reserve the Conference dates – October 19 – 20, 2018 now!

The Society continues to look at opportunities to host webinars and workshops to give our membership the tools that they need to work in this arena. Watch for the 2018 – 19 PD Program of Events and check out our listing of Archived Webinars that can support your practice in this area.

5. Advocacy to position occupational therapy in seniors health services

OSOT continues to advocate for occupational therapy services for seniors across Ontario’s health care system. Our advocacy document, Occupational Therapy Can Help; challenges of an aging population has been shared broadly with government and amongst MPPs at our annual MPP Luncheon. There are so many ways that OTs can contribute and make meaningful differences to seniors health and quality of life, however, Ontarians need increased access to OT services! We have active advocacy and government relations strategies relating to:

As the OSOT Board puts the finishing touches on our new Strategic Plan, we will reveal how we will continue to advance work that supports our members, senior citizen clients and their families to ask for Occupational Therapy Services… and to access them! Stay tuned!

Lesya DykLesya Dyk,
President and Director of Clinical Service,
LDOT Services.

360 Queenston Rd., 2nd Floor, Unit# 3
Hamilton, ON
L8K 1H9

Hamilton: 905-481-1122
Toronto: 416-907-6287
Fax: 905-481-2550

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World Federation of Occupational Therapist (WFOT) Congress

World Federation of Occupational Therapist (WFOT) Congress

World Federation of Occupational Therapist (WFOT) Congress


World Federation of Occupational Therapist (WFOT) Congress – LDOT Occupational Therapist, Hanin Al-Helo will be travelling this Spring to Cape Town, South Africa to present her published research project “Targeting the Globe” at the World Federation of Occupational Therapist (WFOT) Congress.

“Targeting the Globe” addresses the challenges that student OTs completing international placement face and the support that helps them succeed.  Hanin and a group of her peers at McMaster University prepared this research as they completed their second year Evidence-Based Projects and later after graduation they continued on at the request of World Federation of Occupational Therapist (WFOT) to develop the “WFOT Student Guide for International Practice Placement”.


Published article:

Link to access “WFOT Student Guide for International Practice Placement” :


Hanin Al-Helo’s main focus of practice at LDOT is:

-Functional capacity evaluator for DeGroot Pain Clinic, MVA, CPP and disability patients

-Private Pay Cognitive Therapy

-WSIB Return To Work

-Brain Fx


For more information regarding Hanin please feel free to email us


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Best Practices in Fall Prevention

Best Practices in Fall Prevention

Best Practices in Fall Prevention – When you want to make a change for your health, you want to know about best practices. Best practices are strong recommendations that clinicians (doctors, occupational therapists, etc.) use to provide their patients with an effective intervention (treatment or modification).

The clinicians base these recommendations on evidence in the clinical unbiased literature.  Evidence found that the intervention improved the health outcome, and the conclusion is that the benefits outweigh the harm.

This is a big deal. The evidence is what should guide all good practice. It is why you buy a car with safety ratings that are independently researched, and not just the word of the company that is trying to sell you a car.

Fall Prevention is a big thing. Here are a few startling statistics:

  • 1 in 3 older adults in Canada fall each year (over 65)
  • 50% of falls which resulted in hospital admissions occurred in those 65 and older
  • Falls cause more than 90% of hip fractures in seniors and 20% die within a year of the fracture

(Public Health Agency of Canada, Report on Seniors’ Falls in Canada, 2005)

So, when our team at LDOT Services were looking at Best Practices for Fall Prevention; we looked at the literature and found what the American and British Geriatric Society recommended as best practice.

With respect to ‘Assessment’ – the following is recommended:

A multifactorial fall risk assessment should be performed by clinicians with appropriate skills and training, (Occupational Therapists have this training) including a focused history, physical examination, functional assessment (watching clients actually do things) and an assessment of their environment.

With respect to ‘interventions’ or ‘treatment’ – the following should be “Best Practice”.

  • Assessment should include identifying hazards in the home, making recommendations to eliminate the hazards, and providing options to promote the safe performance of daily activities
  • Adaptation or modification of the home environment based on the assessment criteria above
  • Exercise, particularly balance, strength, and gait training

More importantly – the following was NOT recommended in that there was fair evidence found that the intervention is ineffective, or that harm outweighs benefits.

  • Education should not be provided as a single intervention to reduce falls in older persons living in the community

Other evidence that was strong was that vitamin D supplements should be taken by persons proven to have insufficient vitamin D intake. The only way to know whether this is an issue is to consult a doctor – and this is our recommendation.

Our practice is best practice. We provide a multi factorial assessment. We provide recommendations to eliminate hazards within the home and provide options to promote the safe performance of daily activities.

We can provide a list of vetted contracting companies that specialize in home adaptations.

We can work with the contractors to ensure you get what you need to make the living safer, and avoid what may put you in harm’s way.

We provide in home and pool exercise programs though our team of Occupational Therapy Assistants. And by using Occupational Therapy Assistants we ensure these programs are accessible and financially feasible for the participants. For information on these programs or any of our Occupational Services; please contact us directly; you will reach a live knowledge representative at either our  Hamilton Office: 905-481-1122 or our Toronto Office: 416-907-6287.

Alternatively, you can email us directly anytime and one of our helpful representatives will respond very quickly.


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Congratulations to Natasha on Graduating with Distinction

Congratulations to Natasha on Graduating with Distinction

On behalf of the team at Lesya Dyk O.T. (LDOT) Services, I would like to extend our congratulations to Natasha Auret, on her graduation from the University of Guelph with a Bachelor of Commerce, Major in Accounting, with Distinction.

Prior to and during her academic career at the University of Guelph, Natasha contributed in various administrative roles to the success of many projects at LDOT. For example, she re-joined our team in the summer of 2015 to organize and spearhead our ‘Document Scanning Project’. Under her direction, thousands of legacy patient files in the possession of LDOT Services were scanned and stored electronically.  The procedures Natasha implemented during the project continue to be used to this day in our document management system.

At present, Natasha has accepted a full-time position at Deloitte which she will commence in September 2017, and is currently completing course work to fast-track her Certified Professional Accountant (CPA) exam eligibility.

We wish Natasha all the best in her future as a Certified Professional Accountant and thank her for her past contributions to Lesya Dyk O.T. Services.

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Happy Holidays – Is your house visitable?

Happy Holidays – Is your house visitable?

At the recent National Institute of Aging conference held in Toronto, I was a speaker representing OSOT and the Home Modifications Canada Steering Group. The afternoon session was lead by a presentation by Jamie Shipley, a knowledge transfer consultant with the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. He and I have done presentations together before about accessibility for seniors wishing to Age in Place.

Lesya Dyk

At the recent National Institute of Aging conference held in Toronto, I was a speaker representing OSOT and the Home Modifications Canada Steering Group. The afternoon session was lead by a presentation by Jamie Shipley, a knowledge transfer consultant with the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. He and I have done presentations together before about accessibility for seniors wishing to Age in Place.

He asked that the members in the audience raise their hand if they were a “caregiver”. A few members of the audience raised their hands….

Then he asked how many of the audience help their family members (change in definition), and a significantly larger number of hands were raised.

Then, he asked that all the people who had their hands up, to keep their hands up, if those family members who needed care, were coming to their house over the holidays… and most of the hands went down…

The truth is, that most of us live in homes that are not “visitable” – what is visitable?

Visitable is now a term that encompasses adaptability, accessibility and inclusivity – it means that a home can be visited by almost anyone with no major impediments to access into the home or to the bathroom. Accessible is a concept that we as OT’s are more familiar with, but the drawback to this concept is that the issue is that it denotes that disability must exist. But age is not a disability – it is a normal life stage, and we in Canada are at the brink of a crisis….

According to statistics provided by the CMHC, by 2038, 24% of all Canadians will be seniors 65+, and 35% will be 55+. And to bring it back to today – a full third of Canadians now over 65 have some form of disability.

With all of us marching into this ageing cohort – where will we all live? There are no more Long Term Facilities that the province is building, and homes, townhomes and condominiums are being built all over without thought or incentive to making them spaces where we can easily and safely age…..

Many designers, architects, and contractors are now promoting “Inclusive or Universal Design Principles”. These include:

  • Equality
  • Flexibility
  • Simple and Intuitive
  • Easily perceived
  • Tolerance for error
  • Minimal effort
  • Size and space considerations for function

And where do we fit in? Well, Universal Design is not universal, and an OT has the knowledge skills and training to help a person function in their environments. The other issue, is that OT’s have their eye on function – and the client, and the future… This unique perspective is now being understood and valued.

To focus the lens just a bit more – Fall Prevention has been identified as the most important issue that we face and will be facing in healthcare when it comes to our ageing population. ( Tilak Dutta, PEng, Toronto Rehab)

According to Centre for Disease Control published study:

  • In 2012–2013, 55% of all unintentional injury deaths among adults aged 65 and over were due to falls.
  • From 2000 through 2013, the age-adjusted fall injury death rate among adults aged 65 and over nearly doubled from 29.6 per 100,000 to 56.7 per 100,000.
  • Falls cause more accidental deaths than all other causes COMBINED.
  • Over 3/4 of all falls occur in or near the home

And then, when we think about Dementia…

  • Dementia – mostly associated with confusion, reduced short term memory, reduced ability for new learning and later, motor coordination and visual perception difficulties
  • Alzheimer’s Dementia is most common seen in the elderly population
  • 20% over 80 years old have some form of dementia
  • Persons with Dementia who fall have 3 times the risk of death within one year than their counterparts without dementia

In order to prevent falls, the risks and risk factors need to be understood. As OT’s we can assess this, and provide a solution to meet the challenge. If it is low vision – then contrasting colours should be used. If it is reduced strength, then exercise may be indicated. If the issue is balance – is the underlying cause cardiac or neurological, or a change in medication? And what transfers are affected – how do we keep our clients from falls?

Best Practice…

Based on recommendations from the American Geriatric Society and British Geriatric Society (2010) updated in 2016 in: “Clinical practice Guideline: Prevention of Falls in Older Persons’, the summary of recommendations include:

“a home environment assessment carried out by a health care professional should be included in a multifactorial assessment and intervention for older persons who have fallen or who have risk factors for falling”

Although it does not specify Occupational Therapy, it is clear that this work is in our realm. We have the ability to assess the person, their environment, and their occupation, and make recommendations that make sense for our clients now, and in the future.

As we approach the Holiday Season, we the Board who serve OSOT on your behalf wish you all a safe, and happy holiday season, and a prosperous and healthy 2017.

As you begin to gather up your family and friends, start thinking of your own homes, your own spaces….your future selves and your own careers. This my colleagues, is where all our futures lie.

Home is where people want to age , they are happier and it is cheaper….

Prof. Barry Trentham,
O.T. Reg. (Ont) UofT

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Hamilton Brain Injury Association Dinner 2016

Hamilton Brain Injury Association Dinner 2016

hamilton brain injury associationHamilton Brain Injury Association

Once again we are happy to be supporting the 2016 Hamilton Brain Injury Association (HBIA) Dinner being held at the Liuna Station in Hamilton on November 17th, 2016. This will be the 10th annual fundraising dinner for Hamilton Brain Injury Association. LDOT is excited to be a centre piece sponsor this year and happy to show our support by purchasing a full table and will be attending as a team to show our support.

HBIA is an asset to our community providing support, education and advocacy for brain injury survivors and their families.

ABILITY – the correct skills and/or mental and physical fitness to perform in a competent way.
ABNORMAL – different from the average; inappropriate with regard to the standards of society, social role or the existing set of circumstances.
ABSTRACT ATTITUDE- an objective, detached, impersonal state of mind.
ABSTRACT CONCEPT – a concept or idea not related to any specific instance or object and which potentially can be applied to many different situations or objects. People with cognitive deficits often have difficulty understanding abstract concepts.
ABSTRACT THINKING – the ability to apply abstract concepts to situations and surroundings. It is characterized by adaptability in the use of ideas and generalization.
ACTING OUT – impulsive; anti-social behavior.
ACALCULIA – the inability to perform simple problems of arithmetic.
ACUITY – sharpness or quality of a sensation. Keenness of perception.
ACUTE – sharp, severe. 2. Having rapid onset, severe symptoms and a short course. The early stages of an injury (as opposed to chronic, which is long term).
ADAPTIVE / ASSISTIVE EQUIPMENT – a special device which assists in the performance of self care, work, play or leisure activities.
ADL – activities of daily living. Routine activities carried out for personal hygiene and health such as eating, dressing, grooming, shaving, etc. Nurses, occupational and physical therapists are the main coaches for ADL, which is sometimes called DLS or daily living skills.
ADVOCACY – support; help, promoting a cause.
AFFECT – feeling tones; emotions; the outward signs of individual emotions.
AFFECTIVE – having to do with emotions.
AGITATION – a state of restless activity such as pacing, crying or laughing without apparent reason.
AGGRESSIVENESS – a state of irritability; combativeness.
AGNOSIA – failure to recognize familiar objects although the sensory mechanism is intact. May occur for any sensory modality.
AMBIVALENCE – contradictory feelings about an object, person or action, emotion, idea, situation, etc. .
AMBULATION – to walk.
AMNESIA – lack of memory about events occurring during a particular period of time.
ANEURYSM – a balloon-like deformity in the wall of a blood vessel. The wall weakens as the balloon grows larger, and may eventually burst, causing a hemorrhage.
ANOMIA – inability to recall names of objects. Persons with this problem often can speak fluently but have to use other words to describe familiar objects.
ANOSMIA – loss of the sense of smell. SYN: anodmia
ANOXIA – a lack of oxygen. Cells of the brain need oxygen to stay alive. When blood flow to the brain is reduced or when oxygen in the blood is too low, brain cells are damaged.
ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA – inability to consolidate information about ongoing events. Difficulty forming new memories. Shrot- term annesia.
ANTERO-LATERAL INJURY- front and to the side.
ANTERO-POSTERIOR INJURY- gront and to the back.
ANTICONVULSANT – meditation used to decrease the possibility of a seizure (e.g., Dilantin, Phenobarbital, Mysoline, Tegrtol).
ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOR – behavior which is contrary to the customs, standards and moral principles accepted by society.
ANXIETY – feelings of apprehension, uneasiness, agitation, uncertainty and fear because of threat or danger.
APATHY – indifference. Lack of emotiom, concern or interest.
APHASIA – the change in language function due to an injury to the cerebral cortex of brain. It causes partial or total loss of ability to express oneself and/or to understand language.
APRAXIA – the inability to produce voluntary speech due to a deficit in motor (muscle) programming caused by brain damage.
ARACHNOID MEMBRANE – the middle of three membranes protecting the brain and spinal cord.
AROUSAL – being awake. Primitive state of alertness managed by the reticular activating system (extending from medulla to the thalamus in the core of the brainstem) activating the cortex. Cognition is not possible without some degree of arousal.
ARTERIAL LINE – a very thin tube (catheter) inserted into an artery to allow direct measurement of the blood pressure, the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in arterial blood.
ARTICULATION – movement of the lips, tongue, teeth and palate into specific patterns for purposes of speech. Also, a movable joint.
ASSESSMENT – an evaluation of a patient based on the following information: 1. the subjective report of the symptoms by the patient. 2. the progress of the illness or condition. 3. the objective findings of the examiner based on tests, physical examination and medical history.
ATAXIA- a problem of muscle coordination not due to apraxia, weakness, rigidity, spasticity or sensory loss. Caused by lesion of the cerebellum or basal ganglia. Can interfere with a person’s ability to walk, talk, eat and to perform other self care tasks.
ATTENTION – the ability to focus on given task or set of stimuli for an appropriate period of time.
ATTENTION DEFICITS – impaired ability to concentrate.
AUDIOLOGIST – one who evaluates hearing defects and who aids in the rehabilitation of those who have such defects.
AUTOMATIC – spontaneous; involuntary
AUTOMATISM – automatic actions or behavior without conscious volition or knowledge. Such episodes might last for a few minutes or a few days. During such episodes, the person appears normal but, is actually in a trance like state. While in such a state the person is not responsible for his acts and should not be left alone. He may carry out complicated acts without remembering having done so. Such episodes have been associated with severe emotional distress and temporal motor epilepsy.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM – the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary activities, including heart muscle, glands, and smooth muscle tissue. The autonomic nervous system is subdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Sympathetic activities are marked by the flight or fight emergency response, initiated by way of the transmitter norepinephrine (adrenaline). Parasympathetic activities are known by lowered blood pressure, pupil contradiction and slowing of
the heart.
REDUCED AWARENESS – insight; understanding is not clear.
AXON – the nerve fiber that carries an impulse from the nerve cell to a target, and also carries materials from the nerve terminals back to the nerve cell. When an axon is cut, proteins required for
its regeneration are made available by the nerve cell body. A growth cone forms at the tip of the axon. In the spinal cord, a damaged axon is often prepared to re-grow, and often has available a supply of materials to do so. Scientists believe it is the toxic environment that surrounds the axon, and not the genetic programming of the axon itself, that prevents regeneration.

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